Exploring the Treasures of Jordan A Country Profile

Jordan

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a small country with few natural resources, but it has played a pivotal role in the struggle for power in the Middle East. It is a key ally of the United States.

After the Arab rebel against the Ottomans in 1916 during The Second Great War, the locale was partitioned by Britain and France, with the Emirate of Transjordan established in 1921 and becoming a British protectorate. Jordan became independent in 1946.

Jordan captured the West Bank in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and annexed it until Israeli forces took it during the Six Day War in 1967. Jordan gave up its claim to the territory in 1988, and in 1994 became the subsequent Arab state to sign a peace treaty with Israel.

It is home to nearly 2,000,000 Palestinian displaced people. Since start of the nationwide conflict in Syrian, it has seen an influx of a few 1.4 million Syrian displaced people, placing a substantial strain on its resources and infrastructure.

HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN: FACTS

  • Capital: Amman
  • Area: 89,342 sq km
  • Population: 11.1 million
  • Language: Arabic
  • Life expectancy: 72 years (men) 77 years (ladies)

LEADERS

Head of state: King Abdullah II

King Abdullah II, Jordan’s monarch since 1999, has broad powers. He appoints legislatures, approves legislation, and can dissolve parliament.

Faced with demands for political reform in the wake of the popular uprisings arcos the Arab world in 2011, the king dismissed his administration at the time and appointed the first of a progression of state leaders to regulate the introduction of political changes, but worries over living expenses and financial issues have prompted regular road fights.

Proportional representation was introduced in the Jordanian parliament in the 2016 general political decision, a move the king has said will eventually lead to establishing parliamentary states.

TIMELINE

A few key dates in Jordan’s history:

3600-1200BC – Bronze Age sees the rise of fortified towns and urban focuses.

1200-332 BC – Kingdoms of Ammon, Edom and Moab flourish during the Iron Age.

c.740-720BC – Area vanquished by the Neo-Assyrian Realm.

605-539BC – After the collapse of the Assyrians, area incorporated into the Neo-Babylonian Realm under Nebuchadnezzar the Great.

539-330BC – Turns out to be part of the Persian Achaemenid Realm under Cyrus the Great.

330BC – Greeks under Alexander the Great vanquish the area.

323BC – Alexander bites the dust. His realm splits among his generals and a lot of Jordan is in this manner disputed between the Ptolemies in Egypt and the Seleucids in Syria

third Century BC-100AD – During this period the Nabataean kingdom flourishes through control of a significant part of the trade courses of the district from its desert capital, Petra.

63BC – Roman general Pompey the Great annexes the locale – which turns into a Roman province.

324AD – Roman Realm splits into West and East. The Eastern Roman Realm – later known as the Byzantine Domain – continues to control or influence the area.

636 – Arab triumph. Byzantine forces decisively defeated by Muslim armies at the Battle of Yarmuk.

c. 650 – Umayyad dynasty make Damascus the capital of their realm.

750 – Abbasids oust the Umayyads and move their capital to Baghdad.

969-1070 – After the decline of the Abbasids, Jordan is controlled by the Fatimid Caliphate.

1115-1187 – Turns out to be part of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

1187 – Battle of Hattin. The Crusaders are defeated by the Kurdish leader Salah ad-Din, the pioneer behind the Ayyubid dynasty.

1260 – Mongol invasion; Mongols defeated by Egyptian Mamluk forces at the Battle of Ain Jalut.

1400 – Turco-Mongol leader Tamurlane sacks Aleppo and Damascus.

1516 – Ottomans overcome locale and incorporate it into their realm.

1914-18 – The Second Great War.

1916 – Great Arab Revolt. Encouraged by Britain and France who want to militarily weaken the Ottoman Domain, and driven by long haul disdain towards the Ottoman authorities and growing Arab nationalism. The revolt is driven by Sharif Hussein of Mecca.

1921 – Emirate of Transjordan established with Abdullah, Hussein’s child, as emir.

1946 – The United Nations perceives Jordan as an independent sovereign kingdom.

1948 – State of Israel created in British-mandate Palestine. Thousands of Palestinians escape Arab-Israeli fighting to West Bank and Jordan.

1950 – Jordan annexes West Bank.

1951 – King Abdullah assassinated by Palestinian gunman angry at his apparent agreement with Israel in the division of Palestine.

1952 – Hussein proclaimed king after his father, Talal, is declared mentally unfit to run the show.

1957 – British soldiers total their withdrawal from Jordan.

1967 – Israel takes control of Jerusalem and the West Bank during Six-Day War, leading to major influx of exiles into Jordan.

1970-71 – Jordan removes Palestinian Liberation Organization armed camps from the country in the Black September struggle.

1994 – Jordan signs peace treaty with Israel, ending 46-year official state of war.

1999 – Hussein kicks the bucket. His oldest child Crown Prince Abdullah prevails to the high position.

2011 – Political strife in Arab nations reflected in road fights over political reform and the typical cost for many everyday items.

 

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