Unveiling the Rich Tapestry A Journey Through the History of Burkina Faso

History of Burkina Faso



Region: 274,200 sq. km. (106,000 sq. mi.); about the size of Colorado.
Urban communities: Capital- – Ouagadougou (pop. 1 million). Different urban communities – Bobo-Dioulasso (450,000), Koudougou (90,000).
Territory: Savanna; brushy fields, and dissipated slopes.
Environment: Sahelian; articulated wet and dry seasons.


Identity: Thing and descriptor – Burkinabe (highlight on last “e”).
Populace (1995): 10.4 million.
Yearly development rate: 2.8%.
Ethnic gatherings: 63 ethnic gatherings among which are Mossi (close to half of the total populace), Bobo, Mande, Lobi, Fulani, Gurunsi, and Senufo.
Religions: Conventional convictions 40%, Muslim 40%, Christian 20%.
Dialects: French (official), More, Dioula, others.
Instruction: Proficiency (1997)- – 22%: male 29.5%; female 9.2%.
Health: Baby death rate (1995)- – 99/1,000. Future – 49 years.
Work force: Agribusiness – 92%. Industry- – 2.1%. Trade, administrations, and government- – 5.5%.


Type: Republic.
Autonomy: August 5, 1960.
Constitution: June 11, 1991.
Branches: Leader – president (head of state) state head (head of government). Regulative – two chambers. Legal – autonomous.
Subdivisions: 45 areas.
Ideological groups: Congress for A majority rule government and Progress (CDP), Coalition for A vote based system League (ADF), African Vote based Gathering (RDA), Party for A majority rule government and Progress (PDP), and various little resistance groups.
Testimonial: Direct all inclusive.
Focal government spending plan (1996): $394.5 million.
Protection: 16% of government spending plan.


Gross domestic product (1996): $2.4 billion.
Yearly development rate (1996): 6.1%.
Per capita pay (1996): $300.
Avg. expansion rate (1996): 6.1%.
Regular assets (restricted amounts): manganese, gold, limestone, marble, phosphate, zinc. Horticulture (34% of Gross domestic product): Items – cotton, millet, sorghum, rice, livestock, peanuts, shea nuts, maize.
Industry (27% of Gross domestic product): Type- – mining, farming handling plants, blending and packaging, light industry.
Exchange (1995): Commodities – $306 million: cotton, gold, livestock, peanuts, shea nut items. Significant business sectors – European Association, Taiwan. Imports- – $731 million.
Official conversion scale: Floats with French franc. Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) francs 100=1 FF; CFA francs 595=US$1.


Burkina Faso is a landlocked Sahel country that offers borders with six countries. It lies between the Sahara Desert and the Inlet of Guinea, south of the circle of the Niger Waterway. The land is green in the south, with timberlands and organic product trees, and desert in the north. A large portion of focal Burkina Faso lies on a savanna level, 198-305 meters (650-1,000 ft.) above ocean level, with fields, brush, and dispersed trees. Burkina Faso’s down jam – the most significant of which are Arly, Nazinga, and W Public Park- – contain lions, elephants, hippopotamus, monkeys, warthogs, and impalas. Tourism isn’t advanced.

Yearly precipitation fluctuates from around 100 centimeters (40 in.) in the south to under 25 centimeters (10 in.) in the super north and upper east, where hot desert winds complement the dryness of the district. Burkina Faso has three unmistakable seasons: warm and dry (November-Walk), hot and dry (Walk May), and hot and wet (June-October). Waterways are not traversable.


Burkina Faso’s 10 million individuals have a place with two significant West African social gatherings – the Voltaic and the Mande. The Voltaic are undeniably more various and incorporate the Mossi, which make up around one-half of the populace. The Mossi guarantee plunge from fighters who moved to introduce day Burkina Faso and laid out a realm that endured over 800 years. Overwhelmingly ranchers, the Mossi are as yet limited by the practices of the Mogho Naba, who hold court in Ouagadougou.

Around 5,000 Europeans dwell in Burkina Faso.

The greater part of Burkina’s kin are packed in the south and focal point of the nation, now and again surpassing 48 for every square kilometer (125/sq. mi.). This populace thickness, high for Africa, causes yearly relocations of a huge number of Burkinabe to Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana for occasional rural work. A majority of Burkinabe stick to conventional African religions. The acquaintance of Islam with Burkina Faso was at first opposed by the Mossi rulers. Christians, dominatingly Catholics, are to a great extent thought among the metropolitan world class.

Hardly any Burkinabe have had formal instruction. Tutoring is free yet not mandatory, and just around 29% of Burkina’s elementary young kids get essential instruction. The College of Ouagadougou, established in 1974, was the country’s most memorable foundation of advanced education. The Polytechnical College in Bobo-Dioulasso was opened in 1995.


For the rest of the nineteenth 100 years, the history of Burkina Faso was overwhelmed by the realm building Mossi, who are accepted to have come from focal or eastern Africa at some point in the eleventh 100 years. For a really long time, the Mossi laborer was both rancher and warrior, and the Mossi public had the option to safeguard their strict convictions and social design against effective endeavors to change them over completely to Islam by Muslims from the northwest.

At the point when the French showed up and asserted the region in 1896, Mossi obstruction finished with the catch of their capital at Ouagadougou. In 1919, certain regions from Cote d’Ivoire were joined into a different settlement called the Upper Volta in the French West Africa league. In 1932, the new state was eviscerated in a transition to streamline; it was reconstituted in 1937 as a regulatory division called the Upper Coast. After The Second Great War, the Mossi restored their strain for discrete territorial status and on September 4, 1947, Upper Volta turned into a French West African territory again by its own doing.

A revision in the association of French Abroad Territories started with the entry of the Fundamental Regulation (Loi Unit) of July 23, 1956. This act was trailed by reorganizational measures endorsed by the French parliament from the get-go in 1957 that guaranteed a huge level of self-government for individual territories. Upper Volta turned into an autonomous republic in the French people group on December 11, 1958.

Upper Volta accomplished autonomy on August 5, 1960. The principal president, Maurice Yameogo, was the head of the Voltaic Popularity based Association (UDV). The 1960 constitution accommodated political decision by all inclusive testimonial of a president and a public gathering for 5-year terms. Not long after coming to drive, Yameogo prohibited all ideological groups other than the UDV. The public authority went on until 1966 when after much agitation mass exhibitions and strikes by understudies, worker’s organizations, and government employees the military mediated.

The tactical overthrow ousted Yameogo, suspended the constitution, broke down the Public Gathering, and put Lt. Col. Aboukar Sangoule Lamizana at the top of an administration of senior armed force officials. The military stayed in power for quite a long time, and on June 14, 1970, the Voltans confirmed another constitution that laid out a 4-year progress period toward complete regular citizen rule. Lamizana stayed in power all through the 1970s as leader of military or blended common military state run administrations. After struggle over the 1970 constitution, another constitution was composed and endorsed in 1977, and Lamizana was reappointed by open races in 1978.

Lamizana’s administration dealt with issues with the nation’s customarily strong worker’s guilds, and on November 25, 1980, Col. Saye Zerbo toppled President Lamizana in a bloodless upset. Colonel Zerbo laid out the Tactical Panel of Recuperation for Public Advancement as the preeminent administrative power, in this way killing the 1977 constitution.

Colonel Zerbo additionally experienced obstruction from worker’s guilds and was ousted two years after the fact, on November 7, 1982, by Maj. Dr. Jean-Baptiste Ouedraogo and the Chamber of Well known Salvation (CSP). The CSP kept on restricting ideological groups and associations, yet guaranteed a change to non military personnel rule and another constitution.

Factional infighting created between moderates in the CSP and the extremists, drove by Capt. Thomas Sankara who was named state leader in January 1983. The inward political battle and Sankara’s radical rhetoric prompted his capture and ensuing endeavors to achieve his delivery, coordinated by Capt. Blaise Compaore. This delivery exertion came about in one more military overthrow on August 4, 1983.

After the upset, Sankara shaped the Public Chamber for the Transformation (CNR), with himself as president. Sankara likewise settled Boards of trustees for the Protection of the Upheaval (CDRs) to “assemble the majority” and execute the CNR’s progressive projects. The CNR, whose careful enrollment stayed secret until the end, contained two little educated communist Leninist gatherings. Sankara, Compaore, Capt. Henri Zongo, and Maj. Jean-Baptiste Boukary Lengani-all liberal military officials ruled the system.

On August 4, 1984, Upper Volta changed its name to Burkina Faso, signifying “the nation of good individuals.” Sankara, a charming pioneer, looked for by word, deed, and guide to prepare the majority and send off a gigantic bootstrap improvement development. Be that as it may, a significant number of the severe starkness measures taken by Sankara met with developing opposition and conflict. Regardless of his underlying notoriety and individual moxy, issues started to surface in the execution of the progressive goals.

The CDRs, which were shaped as famous mass associations, decayed in certain areas into posses of furnished hooligans and conflicted with a few worker’s guilds. Pressures over the oppressive strategies of the public authority and its general heading mounted consistently. On October 15, 1987, Sankara was killed in an upset which brought Capt. Blaise Compaore to drive.

Compaore, Capt. Henri Zongo, and Maj. Jean-Baptiste Boukary Lengani shaped the Famous Front (FP), which swore to proceed and seek after the objectives of the upheaval and to “correct” Sankara’s “deviations” from the first points. The new government, understanding the requirement for well known help, implicitly directed a considerable lot of Sankara’s strategies. As a feature of a much-examined political “opening” process, a few political associations, three of them non-communist, were acknowledged under an umbrella political association made in June 1989 by the FP.

A few individuals from the radical Association pour le Democratie Populaire/Development du Struggle (ODP/MT) were against the confirmation of non-communist gatherings toward the front. On September 18, 1989, while Compaore was getting back from a fourteen day excursion to Asia, Lengani and Zongo were blamed for plotting to oust the Well known Front. They were captured and immediately executed that very night. Compaore revamped the public authority, selected a few new clergymen, and expected the arrangement of Clergyman of Guard and Security. On December 23, 1989, an official security detail captured around 30 regular citizens and military work force blamed for plotting an overthrow as a team with the Burkinabe outer resistance.


In 1990, the Famous Front held its most memorable Public Congress, which shaped a panel to draft a public constitution. The constitution was supported by mandate in 1991. In 1992, Compaore was chosen president, pursuing unopposed the resistance boycotted the political decision in light of Compaore’s refusal to consent to demands of the resistance, for example, a sovereign Public Meeting to set modalities. The resistance took part in the next year’s regulative races, in which the ODP/MT won a greater part of seats.

The public authority of the Fourth Republic incorporates serious areas of strength for a, a top state leader, a Gathering of Pastors directed by the president, a two-chamber Public Get together, and the legal executive. The governing body and legal executive are free yet stay powerless to outside impact.

In 1995, Burkina held its first multiparty metropolitan races since freedom. With minor exemptions, balloting was viewed as free and fair by the neighborhood common liberties associations which monitored the challenge. The president’s ODP/MT prevailed upon 1,100 of approximately 1,700 councilor seats being challenged.

In February 1996, the decision ODP/MT converged with a few little resistance groups to frame the Congress for A vote based system and Progress (CDP). This successfully co-picked a lot of what minimal reasonable resistance to Compaore existed. The excess resistance groups pulled together in anticipation of 1997 authoritative races and the 1998 official political decision. The 1997 official decisions, which global spectators articulated to be considerably free, fair, and straightforward, brought about a huge CDP greater part – 101 to 111 seats.

Head Government Authorities

President- – Blaise Compaore
Head of the state – Kadre Want Ouedraogo

Priests of State
Climate and Water- – Salif Diallo
Joining and African Fortitude – Bongnessan Arsene Ye

Economy and Money, Government Representative – Tertius Zongo
International concerns – Ablasse Ouedraogo
Equity – Larba Yarga
Territorial Organization and Security- – Yero Boly
Business, Industry, and Artworks – Idrissa Zampalegre
Energy and Mines- – Elie Ouedraogo
Advanced education and Logical Exploration – Christophe Dabire
Essential Instruction and Mass Education – Banworo Seydou Sanou
Framework, Lodging and Metropolitan Preparation – Joseph Kabore
Common Help and Institutional Turn of events – Juliette Bonkoungou
Work, Work, and Government managed retirement – Elie Sarre
Horticulture – Michel Koutaba
Territorial Coordination – Viviane Yolande Compaore
Parliamentary Relations- – Cyril Goungounga
Interchanges and Culture- – Mahamadou Ouedraogo
Health- – Ludovic Alain Tou
Youth and Sports- – Andre Joseph Tiendrebeogo
Transport and Tourism- – Bedouma Alain Yoda
Social and Family Issues – Bana Ouandaogo
Creature Assets – Alassane Sere
Advancement of Ladies – Alice Tiendrebeogo

Serve Representatives
Financial plan – Daouda Bayuli
Finance- – Hamidou Wibgha
Water Assets – Soma Barro
Lodging and Metropolitan Preparation – Idsiaka Drabo
Work Advancement – Emile Kabore
Diplomat to the US – Bruno Nongoma Zidouemba

Burkina Faso maintains a consulate in the US at 2340 Massachusetts Pkwy. NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-332-5577).


Burkina Faso is quite possibly of the most unfortunate country on the planet with per capita GNP of $300. Over 80% of the populace depends on resource horticulture, with just a little portion straightforwardly engaged with industry and administrations. Dry spell, unfortunate soil, absence of sufficient correspondences and other foundation, a low proficiency rate, and a stale economy are all well established issues. The product economy likewise stays subject to vacillations in world costs.

However limped by a very asset denied homegrown economy, Burkina stays focused on the underlying change program it sent off in 1991. It has to a great extent recuperated from the degrading of the CFA in January 1994, with a 1996 development pace of 5.9%.

Numerous Burkinabe move to adjoining nations for work, and their settlements give a significant commitment to the equilibrium of installments. Burkina is endeavoring to improve the economy by fostering its mineral assets, working on its framework, making its rural and livestock sectors more useful and serious, and settling the provisions and costs of food grains.

The rural economy remains exceptionally helpless against variances in precipitation. The Mossi Level in north focal Burkina faces infringement from the Sahara. The resultant toward the south movement implies uplifted rivalry for control of exceptionally restricted water assets south of the Mossi Level. The majority of the populace barely survives as resource ranchers, living with issues of environment, soil disintegration, and simple innovation. The staple harvests are millet, sorghum, maize, and rice. The money crops are cotton, groundnuts, karite (shea nuts), and sesame. Livestock, when a significant product, has declined.

Industry, still in an undeveloped stage, is found fundamentally in Bobo-Dioulasso, Ouagadougou, Banfora, and Koudougou. Fabricating is restricted to food handling, materials, and other import replacement intensely safeguarded by duties. A few factories are exclusive, and others are set to be privatized. Burkina’s exploitable regular assets are restricted, albeit a manganese mineral store is situated in the far off upper east. Gold mining has expanded significantly since the mid-1980s and, alongside cotton, is a main product moneyearner.

A rail line interfaces Burkina with the great deepwater port at Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, 1,150 kilometers (712 mi.) away. Burkina has north of 13,000 kilometers (7,800 mi.) of streets, albeit just around 14% are cleared.


Burkina has great relations with European- – including the European Association – North African, and Asian givers, which are dynamic advancement accomplices. France, specifically, keeps on giving critical guide and supports Compaore’s creating job as a provincial powerbroker. Compaore has interceded a political emergency in Togo and assisted with settling the Tuareg struggle in Niger. A few thousand Tuareg exiles from Mali, who looked for security in Burkina, will be localized toward the finish of 1997. Burkina maintains heartfelt relations with Libya.


U.S. relations with Burkina Faso, once stressed due to Burkina’s past association in Liberia’s affable conflict, are getting to the next level. U.S. interests in Burkina are to advance proceeded with democratization and more noteworthy regard for common liberties.

U.S. exchange with Burkina is still very restricted – $14.5 million in U.S. sends out in 1995- – yet speculation prospects exist, particularly in the mining and correspondences sectors.

In light of the dry season that tormented the Sahel nations from 1968 to 1974, the U.S. given huge crisis food help to Burkina Faso. Following this, the US and other worldwide contributors started to work with the Sahel nations to plan and execute long haul improvement help programs.

While the general measure of U.S. help to Burkina dropped with the 1995 conclusion of the USAID mission in Ouagadougou, the U.S. contributes about $10 million to a taking care of program oversaw by an American non-legislative association. The international safe haven likewise maintains various projects to help social and financial improvement projects all through the country.

In 1995, the Harmony Corps program continued, following a 10-year nonappearance, with volunteers working in rustic health. In 1997, the program was expanded to incorporate training.

Head U.S. Authorities

Envoy Sharon Wilkinson
Vice president of Mission- – Stephen Brundage
Political/Monetary Official; Business Attache- – Linda Cowher
Regulatory Official – John Olson
Harmony Corps Nation Director- – Jan Wessel
Public Undertakings Official (USIS)- – Anne Grimes

The U.S. Consulate in Burkina Faso is situated on Road Raoul Follereau in Ouagadougou. Its postage information are: (global mail) 01 B.P. 35, Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso; (US mail) Ouagadougou/DOS, Washington, D.C. 20521-2440, tel: (226) 30-67-23/24/25, fax: (226) 31-23-68 or (226) 30-38-90.


Data Program gives Travel Admonitions and Consular Data Sheets. Travel Alerts are given when the State Division prescribes that Americans keep away from movement to a specific country. Consular Data Sheets exist for all nations and remember data for migration rehearses, money guidelines, health conditions, areas of shakiness, wrongdoing and security, political aggravations, and the addresses of the U.S. posts in the country. Public Declarations are given as a way to scatter data rapidly about fear based oppressor dangers and other somewhat transient circumstances abroad which present huge dangers to the security of American explorers. Free duplicates of this data are accessible by calling the Department of Consular Issues at 202-647-5225 or through the fax-on-demand framework: 202-647-3000. Travel Alerts and Consular Data Sheets additionally are accessible on the Consular Undertakings Web landing page: http://travel.state.gov and the Consular Issues Announcement Board (CABB). To get to CABB, dial the modem number: (301-946-4400 (it will oblige up to 33,600 bps), set terminal interchanges program to N-8-1 (no equality, 8 pieces, 1 stop bit); and terminal imitating to VT100. The login is travel and the secret key is data (Note: Lower case is required). The CABB likewise conveys worldwide security data from the Abroad Security Warning Gathering and Division’s Agency of Strategic Security. Consular Undertakings Excursions for Explorers distribution series, which contain data on getting identifications and arranging a protected outing abroad, can be bought from the Director of Records, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, Dad 15250-7954; phone: 202-512-1800; fax 202-512-2250.

Crisis data concerning Americans voyaging abroad might be acquired from the Workplace of Abroad Residents Administrations at (202) 647-5225. For late night crises, Sundays and occasions, call 202-647-4000.

Identification Administrations data can be gotten by calling the 24-hour, 7-day seven days automated framework ($.35 each moment) or live operators 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. (EST) Monday-Friday ($1.05 each moment). The number is 1-900-225-5674 (TDD: 1-900-225-7778). Significant Visa clients (for a level pace of $4.95) may call 1-888-362-8668 (TDD: 1-888-498-3648)

Explorers can actually take a look at the most recent health data with the U.S. Communities for Infectious prevention and Avoidance in Atlanta, Georgia. A hotline at (404) 332-4559 gives the latest health warnings, inoculation suggestions or necessities, and counsel on food and drinking water security for locales and nations. A booklet entitled Health Data for Worldwide Travel (HHS distribution number CDC-95-8280) is accessible from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, tel. (202) 512-1800.

Data on movement conditions, visa necessities, money and customs guidelines, legitimate occasions, and different things important to voyagers likewise might be gotten before your takeoff from a nation’s government office and/or departments in the U.S. (for this nation, see “Head Government Authorities” posting in this distribution).

U.S. residents who are long haul visitors or going in hazardous regions are urged to enroll at the U.S. consulate upon appearance in a nation (see “Head U.S. Consulate Authorities” posting in this distribution). This might assist relatives with reaching you if there should be an occurrence of a crisis.

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