Unveiling the Rich Tapestry of Azerbaijan’s History



The verifiable terrains of Azerbaijan, which covered the Incomparable Caucasus Mountains in the north, the Alagez mountain range with a bowl of Lake Goycha and Eastern Anatolia in the west, the Caspian Ocean in the east, and the limits of Sultania, Zanjan, and Hamadan in the south, are one of the focuses of old culture and the support current progress. On this region – on the verifiable grounds of Azerbaijan – the Azerbaijani public have made a rich and unique culture, including the practices of statehood. The verifiable way to express the name “Azerbaijan” was unique. Since old times, from the starting points of progress, this name seemed like Andirpatian, Atropatena, Adirbidzhan, Azirbidzhan, and, at last, Azerbaijan. Writing in a cutting edge structure – “Azerbaijan”, depends on old verifiable, anthropological, ethnographic, and composed sources.

Objects found during archeological unearthings, as well as ethnographic materials gathered during undertakings, made it conceivable to concentrate on customs and customs, material and otherworldly culture, antiquated types of government, family connections in Azerbaijan.

Until now, the most antiquated archeological and paleontological materials have been found, demonstrating that crude individuals lived on the region of Azerbaijan more than 1.7-1.8 a long time back.

The domain of Azerbaijan is very wealthy in archeological landmarks, demonstrating the presence of the most old settlements of crude individuals around here.

Archeological finds were found in the caverns of Azykh, Taglar, Damjily, Dashsalakhly, Gazma (Nakhichevan), as well as in different landmarks, including a piece of the lower jaw of the Azykh man (Azykhantrop), who lived quite a while back – in the Ashelian time frame, demonstrate section of the domain of Azerbaijan into the area of development of crude man.

For this rare find, the domain of Azerbaijan has been placed on the guide “Antiquated occupants of Europe”.

Individuals of Azerbaijan, simultaneously, are one of the people groups with the most antiquated customs of statehood. Azerbaijan has roughly 5 thousand years of statehood history. The primary state developments or ethnopolitical relationship on the region of Azerbaijan were made since the finish of the fourth, start of the third thousand years BC in the Urmia bowl. The old Azerbaijani expresses that arose here play had a significant impact in the military-political history of the whole locale. It was during this period that Azerbaijan was firmly associated with the provinces of Sumer, Akkad, and Assyria, which made a profound imprint in world history, situated in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, as well similarly as with the Hittite state in Asia Minor.

In the first thousand years BC – 1 thousand years Promotion on the terrains of Azerbaijan there were such strong states as Nourishment, the Scythian realm, Atropatena and Albania. These states assumed a significant part in upgrading the way of life of policy management, in the social and financial history of the country, as well as during the time spent framing a solitary group.

Toward the start of our time, Azerbaijan entered one of the most troublesome times of its set of experiences: in the third century Azerbaijan was involved by the Iranian Sassanid Domain, and in the seventh 100 years by the Bedouin Caliphate. The heros resettled an enormous populace of Iranian and Middle Easterner beginning to the country.

In the primary hundreds of years of our time, the Turkish ethnic gatherings, which made up the majority of the nation’s populace and are more coordinated areas of strength for and a military-political perspective, assumed a significant part in the development of a solitary group. Among the Turkish ethnic gatherings, the Oghuz Turks prevailed.

Starting from the principal hundreds of years of our time, the Turkic language has turned into the fundamental method for correspondence between little people groups and ethnic gatherings living in the domain of Azerbaijan. What’s more, the Turkic language likewise played an interfacing job between the north and south of the country. Around then, this element was vital during the time spent framing a solitary group, since during the depicted

period there was not yet a solitary strict perspective – a monotheistic religion covering the whole domain of Azerbaijan. Loving the primary Divine force of the Turks, the Lord of Tanra, has not yet figured out how to displace other strict convictions totally. Zoroastrianism, fire love, love of the Sun, Moon, Paradise, Earth, stars, and so forth were as yet protected. In the north of the nation, in certain pieces of the domain of Albania, particularly in its western districts, Christianity spread. Nonetheless, the autonomous Albanian Church acted in states of extreme contention with the Armenian and Georgian chapels.

With the reception of the Islamic religion in the seventh 100 years, an extreme change occurred in the verifiable fate of Azerbaijan.

The Islamic religion gave serious areas of strength for a to the development of a solitary group and its language, assumed an unequivocal part in speeding up this cycle. The development of a solitary religion between the Turkic and non-Turkic ethnic gatherings was the justification for the development of normal traditions and customs all through the region of Azerbaijan, through which they were settled, the extension of family ties and closer connection. The Islamic religion joined all Turkic and non-Turkic ethnic gatherings, who embraced it, under a typical Turkic-Islamic banner against the Byzantine Domain and the Armenian and Georgian medieval masters under its support, who looked to remember the whole South Caucasus for the effective reach of Christianity.

From the center of the ninth 100 years, the old practices of the Azerbaijani statehood were restored once more. Another political restoration started in Azerbaijan: on the terrains of Azerbaijan, where Islam was spread, the territories of Sajids, Shirvanshahs, Salarids, Ravvadids and Sheddadids emerged.

With the rise of free states, there was a restoration in every aspect of political, financial and social life. A time of recovery started throughout the entire existence of Azerbaijan.

The rise of neighborhood states (Sajids, Shirvanshahs, Salarids, Ravvadids, Shaddadids, Sheki state), following 600 years of Sassanian and Middle Easterner mastery and the change of Islam into the vitally monotheistic religion all through the nation assumed a significant part in the ethnic development of the Azerbaijani public and the development of a solitary language and culture.

Simultaneously, in the verifiable states of the continuous difference in medieval traditions that managed Azerbaijan, the Islamic religion was significant for the unification of the whole Azerbaijani populace – both the different Turkic clans that assumed a significant part in the development of our kin and the non-Turkic ethnic gatherings that blended in with them, in the structure joined force against unfamiliar trespassers.

After the fall of the Bedouin Caliphate, beginning from the center of the ninth hundred years, the job of the Turkic-Islamic realms expanded in the Caucasus, as well as all through the Close and Center East. States controlled by the Sajids, Shirvanshahs, Salarids, Ravvadids, Shaddadids, Sheki rulers, Seljuk, Eldeniz, Mongols, Elkhanids-Hulaguids, Chobanids, Jelairids, Timurids, Ottomans, Karakoyunlu, Akkoyunludis, different Muslims made a profound imprint not just in that frame of mind of the statehood of Azerbaijan yet additionally in the whole Close and Center East. For quite a while, Azerbaijan was the focal locale of a significant number of these states, and Tabriz was the capital.

In the XV-XVIII hundreds of years, as well as in the ensuing time frame, the way of life of the statehood of Azerbaijan was significantly more enhanced. Right now, the immense eastern realms of Karakoyunlu, Akkoyunlu, Safavids, Afshars, and Qajars were administered straight by Azerbaijani administrations.

This significant component emphatically affected the interior and worldwide relations of Azerbaijan, extended the field of military-political impact of our nation and individuals, and, thusly, the circle of action of the Azerbaijani language, made ideal circumstances for the further improvement of the material and profound culture of the Azerbaijani public. Alongside the way that during the period depicted, the Azerbaijani states assumed a significant part in global relations and the military-political existence of the Close and Center East, they likewise effectively took part and played an interceding job in relations among Europe and the East.

During the rule of the extraordinary legislator of Azerbaijan Uzun Hasan (1468-1478), the Akkoyunlu domain transformed into a strong military-political calculate the whole Close and Center East. The way of life of the statehood of Azerbaijan has gotten considerably more noteworthy turn of events. Uzun Hasan sought after a strategy of making areas of strength for a, state covering every single Azerbaijani land. For this reason, for his benefit, “Ganun-name” was distributed. By request of the incredible sovereign, the Koran was converted into the Azerbaijani language, and the exceptional researcher of that time, Abu Bakr al-Tehrani, was depended with composing the Oghuz narrative “Kitabi-Diyarbekiriyye”.

Toward the finish of the fifteenth – start of the sixteenth hundreds of years, the Azerbaijani statehood entered another stage in its authentic turn of events. The grandson of Uzun Hasan, the exceptional legislator Shah Ismail Khatai (1501-1524) proceeded with the work began by his granddad and figured out how to join every one of the northern and southern terrains of Azerbaijan subject to his authority. A solitary brought together Azerbaijani state emerged – the Safavid state with its capital in Tabriz. During the rule of the Safavids, the way of life of state organization in Azerbaijan expanded much more. The Azerbaijani language, alongside Persian, turned into the state language on the region of an enormous realm. Because of fruitful changes, homegrown and international strategies completed by Shah Ismail, Shah Tahmasib, Shah Abbas, and other Safavid sovereigns, the Safavid state transformed into one of the most impressive realms of the Close and Center East.

The extraordinary Azerbaijani authority Nadir Shah Afshar (1736-1747), who came to drive after the fall of the Safavid state, further extended the boundaries of the previous Safavid Realm. This extraordinary leader of Azerbaijan, a local of the Afshar-Turkic clan, held onto North India, remembering Delhi for 1739.

In any case, after the passing of Nadir Shah, the huge realm administered by him fell. Furthermore, in the last part of the eighteenth 100 years, Azerbaijan split into little states – khanates and sultanates.

Toward the finish of the eighteenth 100 years, the Azerbaijani Turkic Qajar administration (1796-1925) came to control in Iran. The Qajars started to seek after a strategy pointed toward subjecting the focal power of all regions that were once subject to the authority of their progenitors Karakoyunlu, Akkoyunlu, Safavids, and, at long last, Nadir Shah, including the Azerbaijani khanates.

This is the way the period of long haul wars started between the Qajars and the Russian Domain, which was endeavoring to hold onto the South Caucasus.

In this manner, Azerbaijan transformed into a field of horrendous conflicts between the two extraordinary powers.

As per the Gulistan (1813) and Turkmenchay (1828) deals, Azerbaijan was split between two domains: Northern Azerbaijan was attached to Russia, and South Azerbaijan – to Iran.

In this manner, in the resulting history of Azerbaijan, new ideas showed up: “North (or Russian) Azerbaijan” and “South (or Iranian) Azerbaijan”.

To make support for itself and a Christian fortification in the South Caucasus, Russia started to enormously resettle the Armenian populace from adjoining districts to the involved Azerbaijani terrains, specifically, the uneven locales of Karabakh, the regions of the Erivan and Nakhichevan khanates. General Pashkevich even gave explicit guidelines on where precisely they ought to be resettled. In March 1828, the Iravan and Nakhichevan khanates of Azerbaijan were exchanged, and the alleged “Armenian locale” was a made on their area for the resettled Armenians. Consequently, the establishment was laid for the future Armenian state on the grounds of Azerbaijan.

What’s more, in 1836, Tsarist Russia exchanged the free Albanian Church and subjected it to the Gregorian Church. In this manner, positive circumstances were made for the Gregorianization and Armenianization of the old Azerbaijani Christian-Albanian populace. The establishment was laid for new regional cases of Armenians to Azerbaijanis. Not happy with this, tsarist Russia depended on a considerably more wretched strategy: it raised the Armenians outfitted by it against the Turkic-Muslim populace and incited a mass butcher of Azerbaijanis. The time of slaughter of the Azerbaijani public and the whole Turkic-Muslim populace of the South Caucasus started.

The freedom battle in Northern Azerbaijan finished in phenomenal misfortunes. Here, the Dashnak-Trotskyite legislature of S. Shaumyan, which held onto power in Baku and its environs, serious a horrendous massacre against the Azerbaijani public in March 1918. Congenial Turkey stretched out some assistance to Azerbaijan. The freedom development was successful. On May 28, 1918, the main popularity based republic in the East, the Azerbaijan Majority rule Republic, was laid out in Northern Azerbaijan.

The Azerbaijan Popularity based Republic, which was the principal parliamentary republic throughout the entire existence of the Azerbaijani public, was simultaneously an illustration of a majority rule, legitimate and mainstream state in the whole East, including the Turkic-Islamic world.

During the time of the Azerbaijan Popularity based Republic, the historical backdrop of parliamentarism is partitioned into two periods: the primary time frame endured from May 27 to November 19, 1918. During these a half year, the Azerbaijani parliament, which comprised of 44 delegates of Muslim Turks and worked under the name of the Public Chamber of Azerbaijan, settled on significant verifiable choices. The main parliament on May 28, 1918, broadcasted the freedom of Azerbaijan, assumed control over the public authority, and embraced the memorable Announcement of Autonomy.

The second, or Baku period throughout the entire existence of parliamentarism of the Azerbaijan Popularity based Republic endured from December 7, 1918, to April 27, 1920 – just 17 months.

The law on the foundation of the Baku State College, took on by the parliament on September 1, 1919, ought to be uniquely noted. The launch of the public college was the main authentic value of the heads of the Republic to their local individuals. Albeit the Azerbaijan Vote based Republic in this way fell, Baku State College assumed an indispensable part in saving its thoughts and in reestablishing freedom.

During the presence of the Azerbaijan Popularity based Republic, 155 parliamentary meetings were held, ten of which occurred during the working of the Public Committee of Azerbaijan (May 27-November 19, 1918), and 145 – the Azerbaijani parliament (December 7, 1918 – April 27, 1920).

In excess of 270 bills were submitted to the parliament for conversation, around 230 of which were embraced. The regulations were examined amidst warmed and efficient discussions and were taken on solely after the third perusing.

Regardless of the way that the Azerbaijan Popularity based Republic existed for just 23 months, it demonstrated that even the most severe pilgrim and harsh systems can’t obliterate the goals of opportunity and customs of state autonomy of the Azerbaijani public.

Because of the tactical animosity of Soviet Russia, the Azerbaijan Majority rule Republic fell. An end was placed to the free statehood in Northern Azerbaijan. On April 28, 1920, the foundation of the Azerbaijan Soviet Communist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR) on the domain of the Azerbaijan Popularity based Republic was declared.

Following the Soviet occupation, the course of obliteration of the arrangement of autonomous state organization, made during the presence of the Azerbaijan Vote based Republic, started.

The “Red Fear” ruled all through the country. Any individual who could oppose the reinforcing of the Marxist system promptly turned into a survivor of the “Red Fear” under the name of an “foe of individuals”, “traditionalist” or “saboteur”.

Consequently, after the March 1918 slaughter, another decimation against the Azerbaijani public really started. The main contrast was that this time the most well known delegates of individuals were annihilated – remarkable figures of the Azerbaijan Nation’s Republic, commanders and senior officials of the Public Armed force, moderate scholarly people, renowned researchers. This time, the Marxist Dashnak system, in a pre-arranged way, obliterated just the cream of individuals and tried to decapitate them. As a matter of fact, this massacre was substantially more cruel and horrible than the March one.

The assembly of the first Congress of Soviets of the Azerbaijan SSR on May 6, 1921, finished the Sovietization of Northern Azerbaijan. On May 19, the main Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR was taken on.

Subsequent to denying the Azerbaijani nation of their autonomous influence, the loot of their abundance started. Confidential responsibility for was canceled. Every one of the normal assets of the nation were nationalized, all the more unequivocally, they were viewed as state property. For the administration of the oil business, the Oil Board of Azerbaijan was uncommonly made, the initiative of which was shared with A.P. Serebrovsky, coordinated by V.I.Lenin. Hence, VI Lenin, who wrote in a message sent back on March 17, 1920, to the Military-Progressive Chamber of the Caucasian Front, “The catch of Baku is extremely, significant for us” and consequently gave a sign of the triumph of Northern Azerbaijan, accomplished his objective. Baku oil passed under the control of Soviet Russia.

During the 30s, fierce constraints were completed all through Azerbaijan. In 1937 alone, 29 thousand individuals were stifled. During this period, Azerbaijan lost many such scholars, intriguing agents of the intellectual elite, like Huseyn Javid, Mikail Mushvig, Ahmed Javad, Salman Mumtaz, Ali Nazmi, Tagi Shahbazi, and others. The psychological capability of individuals and its commendable agents were annihilated. After this awful blow, the Azerbaijani public couldn’t recuperate for quite a long time.

In 1948-1953, another phase of mass extradition of Azerbaijanis from Western Azerbaijan (from the domain called the Armenian SSR), which was their unique country, started. Armenians have reinforced much more in the terrains of Western Azerbaijan. Their quantitative predominance in this domain was guaranteed.

Notwithstanding the significant triumphs accomplished thanks to the imaginative virtuoso of the Azerbaijani public, because of various goal and abstract reasons, negative propensities started to show up in numerous areas of the Azerbaijani economy – both in industry and horticulture – during the 1960s.

In this tough spot in which the republic found itself, a significant change occurred in the Azerbaijani administration. In 1969, Heydar Aliyev’s most memorable time of administration in Azerbaijan started. In a troublesome verifiable circumstance of the mastery of the extremist system, Heydar Aliyev, determined to transform Azerbaijan into one of the most progressive republics of the Soviet Association, set out on a program of wide changes in all circles of life.

The extraordinary lawmaker originally looked for the reception at the level of the Politburo of the Focal Board of trustees of the Socialist Faction of the Soviet Association, at plenums of the Focal Council, congresses of the Socialist Coalition of positive choices on significant issues for his country and individuals in different areas of the economy (counting horticulture) and culture, and afterward activated our whole individuals to execute these choices, constantly he battled energetically for the flourishing of his local Azerbaijan. At the top of his arrangements was the change of Azerbaijan into an independent and profoundly created country concerning science and innovation (in the wording of that time, into a managerial and monetary unit). To put it plainly, Heydar Aliyev began the way prompting the freedom of our Homeland in those days.

In 1970-1985, in a short verifiable period, many manufacturing plants, production lines, and enterprises were made all through the republic. 213 modern foundations were sent off. Azerbaijan involved one of the main spots in the Soviet Association in numerous enterprises. 350 sorts of items made in Azerbaijan were sent out to 65 nations of the world.

The colossal verifiable meaning of this large number of sublime imaginative works completed during the main time of Heydar Aliyev’s administration in Azerbaijan was that public pride, public mindfulness were stirred in our kin, sensations of opportunity and autonomy were raised. Basically, this implied the section of the Azerbaijani nation during the 70s of the XX 100 years into another stage – the phase of public upsurge.

The last stage throughout the entire existence of the Azerbaijani statehood, which started during the breakdown of the USSR with the reception of the Protected Follow up on the State Freedom of the Republic of Azerbaijan on October 18, 1991 after the breakdown of the USSR, proceeds right up to the present day effectively.

All through their whole history, the Azerbaijani states went through times of rising and fall, were exposed to inward breaking down and outer occupation. Azerbaijan has consistently kept up with tranquil and quiet relations with its neighbors. In any case, the Armenians who got comfortable Western Azerbaijan continually infringed on the Azerbaijani terrains, exploited the circumstance to hold onto new regions.

Starting around 1988, the Armenian military have carried out an arrangement to expel Azerbaijanis living in 126 settlements of Nagorno-Karabakh, which was an essential piece of Azerbaijan. On May 8, 1992, the Armenians caught Shusha, and on October 2, 1992 – Khojavend.

It was during this period, the evening of February 25-26, 1992, that the most appalling occasion of the twentieth century occurred – the Armenian military, along with the warriors of the 366th mechanized rifle regiment of the previous Soviet armed force, totally annihilated the city of Khojaly, in which 6,000 Azerbaijanis lived.

In this way, beginning around 1988, because of the tactical hostility of the Armenian outfitted developments, 20% of Azerbaijani grounds are the domain of Nagorno-Karabakh and 7 contiguous locales (Lachin – May 18, 1992, Kelbajar – April 2, 1993, Aghdam – July 23, 1993, Jebrail – August 23, 1993, Fizuli – August 23, 1993, Gubadli – August 31, 1993, Zangilan – October 29, 1993) was involved, 700 thousand Azerbaijanis had to leave their homes and briefly resettled principally in excess of 1600 articles in 62 urban communities and regions.

In the states of the reinforcing of the well known development in March 1992, A. Mutalibov, who drove the republic, surrendered. The made void in power has additionally debilitated the safeguard ability of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Accordingly, in May 1992, the Armenian military affiliations additionally caught Shusha. Consequently, the Armenians really involved the domain of the whole Nagorno-Karabakh. The subsequent stage was the control of Lachin, the area interfacing Armenia with Nagorno-Karabakh. The battle for power, which went on during the standard of the Famous Front of Azerbaijan, managed a weighty disaster for the protection of the republic. In April 1993, Kelbajar was involved. In June, a profound political emergency was obvious in Azerbaijan. At the interest of individuals, Heydar Aliyev came to drive.

With the arrival of Heydar Aliyev to control, a defining moment in the destiny of our nation occurred, the erupting nationwide conflict was deflected. This day went down throughout the entire existence of the Azerbaijani nation as the “Day of Public Salvation”.

On May 12, 1994, a truce understanding was endorsed among Azerbaijan and Armenia. In any case, in spite of this, the Armenian furnished arrangements frequently disregarded it, exposing the regular citizen populace to shelling.

The evening of April 2, 2016, the tactical clash that unfurled between the Military of Azerbaijan and Armenia turned into the biggest showdown on the contact line since the truce was agreed upon.

The April fights finished with the triumph of the Military of Azerbaijan, the levels around the town of Talish were freed, as well as the Seisulan point of the Terter area, the Lele-Tepe level and the Chojuk town of Marjanly, the Jebrail district, the Gulistan town of the Goranboy locale and the streets toward the Madagiz town of the Terter area.

The infringement of the state line toward the Tovuz district in July 2020, the settlement of Lebanese Armenians in the domains we involved showed that it was useless to direct harmony discussions. Armenia’s desired harm to commit in August in the Goranboy heading and the making of volunteer military developments made another conflict totally important.

Another set of experiences was composed for Azerbaijan because of the counter-hostile of the Azerbaijani armed force, which started on September 27, 2020, with the incitements of the Armenian military against Azerbaijan.

After one more incitement of the Armenian military on the line of contact, as per the advance notice of President Ilham Aliyev, Azerbaijan started military discipline of the adversary. During the continuous fast counteroffensive, various key levels were freed from occupation, the settlement of Sugovushan and the town of Talysh in the Terter locale of the Jebrail area, the town of Hadrut in the Fizuli district, the Zangilan district, the Gubadli area and, at last, the city of Shusha.

The 44-day war prompted the total triumph of Azerbaijan and the acquiescence of Armenia. During this period, around 300 towns, 5 urban communities, 4 settlements, various key levels were freed. The adversary’s hardware was totally annihilated, and his labor supply was truly harmed. The Enthusiastic Conflict, which endured just 44 days, drove not exclusively to the freedom of our regions yet additionally to the furthest limit of the occupation, as well as the settlement of the contention, which endured right around 30 years.


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